Adverb

Adverb:
Adverb কোন Adjective কে Qualify করে।
যেমন: He is a very(adverb) good(adjective) man.
How, When, Where এই প্রশ্নগুলোর জবাব যে Word থেকে পাওয়া যায় তাকে adverb বলে।
যেমন:
He behaved rudely with me(how?).
He will come now(When?).
I want to go home(Where).

Noun, Pronoun ও Interjection ছাড়া অন্যান্য সব Parts of speech কে এবং একটি পুরো Sentence কে Adverb modify করে।
যেমন:
Verb-          কে: The birds flies swiftly. (how?)
Adjective-  কে: She is a very good girl. (How good?)
Adverb-     কে: She writes very well. (How?)
Preposition-কে: I came here just before ten. (When?)
Conjunction-কে: I did not do it simply because I had not time to do it. (Why?)
Sentence-   কে: Really he was a good man.

Adverb কে বিভিন্নভাবে বিভক্ত করা যায় ।
1. Simple or Independent Adverbs

  1. Adverbs of time(When?).
  2. Adverbs of place(Where).
  3. Adverbs of manner(How?)
  4. Adverbs of frequency
  5. Adverbs of quantity or degree
  6. Adverbs of affirmation and negation
  7. Adverbs of cause and effect
  8. Adverbs of order

2. Interrogative Adverbs
3. Relative or Conjunctive adverbs
4. Genitive adverbs
5. Introductory adverbs
এছাড়াও প্রসঙ্গক্রমে Genitive Adverbs, Introductory Adverbs, Prepositional Adverbs, Compound Adverbs, Sentence Adverbs and Quasi Adverbs সম্বন্ধে আলোচনা করব।

a). Adverbs of time:
এই ধরণের Adverbগুলো ক্রিয়া সম্পন্ন হওয়ার সময় বুঝায় অর্থাৎ আগে যা জেনেছি “When?” প্রশ্নটির উত্তর দেয়।
যেমন:
She will come late(দেরিতে). (When-এর উত্তর দিচ্ছে)
I came back soon(শীঘ্রই). (When-এর উত্তর দিচ্ছে)
Did you see me before?
I shall go tomorrow.
He went yesterday.
We rise early in the morning.
We will go then.
What are you doing now?
He always comes to our house.
She gives us milk daily.
I will ever(চিরদিন) love you.
He will never come back.
The child was born two months ago.
I have already completed my work.
If you are in danger, telephone me immediately.
I have come today.

b). Adverb of place:
»»এই ধরণের Adverbগুলো ক্রিয়া সম্পন্ন হওয়ার স্থানকে বুঝায় অর্থাৎ আগে যা জেনেছি “Where?” প্রশ্নটির উত্তর দেয়।
»»’Where?’ প্রশ্নটির জবাবে যে Word থেকে পাওয়া যায় তাকে Adverb of place বলে।
যেমন:
I want there. (Where-এর উত্তর দিচ্ছে)
She lives here.
We moved thither(ওদিকে).
Come hither(এদিকে).
There is a pond near the school.
Sitting on the branch of the tree, we looked bellow.
She is bellow and I am above in the class.
You need to walk two miles hence(এখান থেকে).
Air is found everywhere.
The dog ran away.
Is he within?
Come in.
She is gone out.
The sun has risen up.
The place is far from here.
We walked three miles thence(সেখান থেকে).
He went inside.

c). Adverb of manner:
এই ধরণের Adverbগুলো ক্রিয়া সম্পন্ন হওয়ার “ধরণ” বা “কায়দা” বুঝায় যা  “How?” প্রশ্নটির উত্তর দেয়।
যেমন:
The boy walks slowly.
We work hard.(“How?”-এর প্রশ্নের উত্তর দিচ্ছে।”)
I slept soundly.
The army fought bravely.
You have thought wisely.
He is highly honored here.
The pen writes well.
She read aloud.
Get ready quickly.

d). Adverb of frequency:
এই ধরণের Adverbগুলো ক্রিয়া সম্পন্ন হওয়ার বারংবারতা বুঝায়। Frequently মানে বারবার।
যেমন:
I have met him once in my life. (এখানে How many times এর উত্তর দিচ্ছে।)
He will come again.
Give the patient this pill thrice a day.
He always speaks the truth.
I often go to the sea-shore.
He will never come back.
We usually do this.
They do not generally come here.
She sometimes comes to my house.
Such a good boy is rarely found.
He occasionally invites me.

e). Adverbs of Quantity or Degree:
এই ধরণের ‍Adverb ’কতখানি’, ‘কি মাত্রায়’, ’কি পরিমানে’ এ সব বুঝায়।
যেমন:
He has lost almost all his money. (এখানে পরিমান বুঝায়)
I drank enough milk this morning.
She is quite happy.
He is very strong.
He is too weak to walk.
Earn much and spend less.
He knows little about it.
I am rather sick today.
He hardly ever comes here.
No such germ can live in ice.
You are partly right.
A too luxurious thing is least used.
The more man gets the he wants.
Rice grows abundantly in Bangladesh.

f). Adverb of Affirmation and Negation:
এই ধরণের adverb গুলো হ্যাঁ বা না নির্দেশ করে।
যেমন:
Really(প্রকৃতভাবে-হ্যাঁ বোধক) he is an honest man.
You are probably(হ্যাঁ বা না) right.
He has perhaps seen a train.
He is truly a genius.
I am indeed a fool.
No, He did not go there.
Yes, you are right.
You shall not tell a lie.
You has certainly done it.
He will possibly come today.

g). Adverb of Cause and Effect:
এই ধরণের adverb গুলো কোন verb এর কাজ সংগঠিত হওয়ার কারণ ও ফলাফল নির্দেশ করে।
I, therefore,(অতএব-কারণ নির্দেশ করছে) hope that you will do it.
The man was unable to work. Hence he was dismissed from the job.
He taught me how to do it, and I did it accordingly.(ফলাফল বুঝাচ্ছে)
You did not work; Consequently you failed in your exam.
Wherefore(কি জন্য) do you come here?
I do not know why he has done it.

h). Adverbs of Order:
এই ধরণের adverb গুলো কোন verb এর কাজ সংগঠিত হওয়ার Order বা ক্রম নির্দেশ করে।
যেমন: Firstly, we have to collect the money.
He came last but he finished first.
Secondly, we have to call a meeting.
Lastly, We must arrange for a picnic.

 

INTERROGATIVE ADVERBS:
এই Adverb গুলো প্রশ্ন করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়। এই প্রশ্নগুলো Place, Time and Quantity বুঝাতে পারে।
যেমন: When did you go?
Where did he go?
How did he go?
How are you now?
How much did you buy?
How often did he come?
Why did he go?

 

RELATIVE ADVERBS:
When, Where, Why যখন প্রশ্ন জিজ্ঞাসার জন্য ব্যবহৃত না হয়ে দুটি বাক্যকে যুক্ত করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয় তখন এই শব্দগুলোকে Relative adverb বলে।
যেমন:  I know the place. He lives there.
বাক্য দুটিকে Relative adverb দিয়ে যুক্ত করলে বাক্যটি হবে-
I know the place where he lives.
এখানে the place = antecedent তবে antecedent কে বাদ দিয়েও বাক্যটিকে সঠিকভাবে লেখা যায়।
I know where he lives.

 

GENITIVE ADVERBS:
Possessive noun থেকে যে adverb গঠিত হয় তাকে genitive adverb বলে। যেমন:
He must needs do it. (সে অবশ্যই কাজটি করবে=তাকে তার প্রয়োজনে কাজটি করতে হবে।) এখানে needs = of necessity = প্রয়োজনের খাতিরে।
This pen is of mine.
He came here once.
I always speak the truth.

 

INTRODUCTORY ADVERBS:
There lived a man in a village.
Here are many boys playing.
এখানে বাক্য দুটিতে There and Here কোন স্থান বুঝায়নি, শুধু sentence শুরু করার জন্য ব্যবহৃত হয়েছে। এই ধরণের কাজে here and there ব্যবহৃত হলে তাকে introductory adverb বলে।
Adverbial particles:
(a) She put her dress on.
(b) She put her dress on the table.

(a) We went up.
(b) We went up the hill.

(a) He fell down.
(b) He fell down the chair.

(a) She entered in.
(b) She entered in the hall.

(a) Put your shirt off.
(b) I put off my shirt.

(a) Boys are running about.
(b) Boys are running about the pillar.
উদাহরণগুলোর (a) চিহিৃত বাক্যগুলোতে ব্যবহৃত on, up, down, in, off, about adverb.
অপরপক্ষে (b) চিহিৃত বাক্যগুলোতে ব্যবহৃত on, up, down, in, off, about adjective.
এই word গুলোকে বলে adverbial particles.

Sentence adverb:
যে ‍adverb কোন একটি পুরো sentence কে modify করে তাকে sentence adverb বলে। যেমন:
Study hard; otherwise, you will fail.
Now, you are in good position.
I did not join the meeting. Therefore, he fired me from the job.
He is a good man. Yet, he has few friends.

Quasi adverbs:
কয়েকটি Quasi adjective আছে যারা কখনো কখনো adverb রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Adjective: It is contrary to our proposal.
Adverb: She acted contrary to our expectation.

Adjective: The previous date was cancelled by the instructor.
Adverb: He said that his father came home the previous day.
উপরের উদাহরণে contrary, previous শব্দ দুটি Quasi adverbs. এছারাও pursuant, regardless, preliminary, preparatory ইত্যাদি শব্দ Quasi adverb হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Adverb used as a noun:
Adverb কখনো কখনো noun হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। যেমন:
Adverb রূপে: He went inside.
Noun রূপে: He came out from inside.
Adverb রূপে: He will come then.
Noun রূপে: He will come by then.

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