Change of Narration

narration

Change of Narration:

Narration: বক্তার বক্তব্য উপস্থাপনের উপায়কে Narration বা উক্তি বলে।
বক্তা তার বক্তব্যকে দুই ভাবে উপস্থাপন করতে পারে। Change of narration করার জন্য বেশ কিছু নিয়ম অনুসরণ করতে হয়।

Table of contents:
»»Rules for Changing Pronoun
»»Rules for Changing Tenses
»»Rules for Changing Sentences
»»Assertive Sentences
»»Interrogative Sentences
»»Imperative Sentences
»»Exclamatory Sentences
»»Optative Sentences

1. Direct Speech:
এই ধরণের Narration-এ বক্তার বক্তব্য সরাসরি Quotation Mark এর ভিতর উপস্থাপন করা।
Example: She said, “I am a good singer”.

Two concepts of Indirect speech:
Reporting verb:
Indirect speech এর যে অংশ বক্তা নিজে বলে তার verb কে বলে Reporting verb.
Example: He says, “I am a boy.” এখানে ‍says হলো Reporting verb.

Reported speech:
বক্তা অপরের দ্বারা যে অংশটি হুবুহু তুলে ধরে তাকে Reported speech বলে।
Example: He says, “I am a boy.” এখানে ‍“I am boy.” হলো Reported speech.

 

2. Indirect Speech
বক্তার বক্তব্য যখন অন্য কেউ ব্যক্ত করে তখন তাকে Indirect Speech বলে।
Example: She told that she was a good singer.

»»»Rules for Changing Pronoun:
Rule-1:
Reported speech এর first person(I, We) সর্বদা reporting verb এর ‍Subject এর Number, Gender and Person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।
Example:
Direct: He says, “I am well.”
Indirect: He says that he is well.

Rule-2:
Reported speech এর Second person(You) সর্বদা reporting verb এর ‍Subject এর Number, Gender and Person অনুযায়ী পরিবর্তিত হয়।
Example:
Direct: Kamal said to me, “ I am your friend.”
Indirect: Kamal said to me that he was my friend.

Direct: They said to him, “We have seen you.”
Indirect: They said to him that they had seen him.

Direct: Mother said to you, “What is your name?”
Indirect: Mother asked you what your name was.

Direct: Shilpi said to me, “I know your father.”
Indirect: Shilpi told me that she knew my father.

Note:Said to’ এর পরিবর্তে told ব্যবহার করা যায়।

চল একটু ভিন্ন উদাহরণ দেখি-
Direct: ‍She says to Karim,” I am well and you are unwell.”
Indirect: She says to Karim that she is well and he is unwell.

Note: এখানে You আসলে Karim কে নির্দেশ করেছে ফলে You পরিবর্তিত হয়ে He হয়েছে।

 »»»Rules for Changing Tenses:
Rule-1:
Reporting verb এর tense Present or Future হলে Reported Speech এর verb এর tense এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Direct: He says to me, “I can do it.”
Indirect: He says to me that he can do it.

Direct: She will say, “I did not go there.”
Indirect: She will say that she did not go there.

Rule-2:
Reporting verb এর Past tense এর হলে Reported Speech এর verb পরিবর্তিত হয়ে Corresponding(অনুরূপ) Past tense হয়।
Reporting verb এর Past tense এর হলে-
Present indefinite ⇒ Past indefinite
Present continuous ⇒ Past continuous
Present perfect ⇒ Past perfect
Present perfect continuous ⇒ Past perfect continuous
Past indefinite ⇒ Past perfect
Past continuous ⇒Past perfect continuous
উপরের তালিকা থেকে দেখা যাচ্ছে Past perfect and Past perfect continuous tense পরিবর্তিত হয় না।

সুতারাং
Shall ⇒ Should
Can ⇒ Could
May ⇒ Might হিসেবে পরিবর্তিত হবে।

Example:
Direct: She said “ I ate rice.”
Indirect: She said that he ate rice.

Direct: He said “I am eating rice.”
Indirect: He said that he was eating rice.

Direct: He said “I have been eating rice.”
Indirect: He said that he had been eating rice.

Direct: He said “I ate rice.”
Indirect: He said that he had eaten rice.

Direct: He said “I was eating rice.”
Indirect: He said that he had been eating rice.

Direct: He said “I had eaten rice”.
Indirect: He said that he had eaten rice.

Direct: He said “I had been eating rice.”
Indirect: He said that he had been eating rice.

Note: শেষের দুটি উদাহরণ দেখ Past perfect and Past perfect continuous tense পরিবর্তিত হয়নি।

Rule-3:
Shat, Will, Can, Make (Causative হিসেবে) এবং Let, Dare (সাহস করা) ইত্যাদি অর্থে ইত্যাদি Verb গুলি পরিবর্তিত হলেও এদের পরবর্তি Verb এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Direct: He said to me “I shall do it.”
Indirect: He told me that he would do it.

Direct: Rahim said “Kamal will eat rice.”
Indirect: Rahim told that Kamal would eat rice.

Direct: I said to you “I shall do it.”
Indirect: I told you that I should do it.

Direct: Lila said to Bella “I can make it.”
Indirect: Lila told Bella that she could make it.

Direct: You said “I make chairs work magic.”
Indirect: You told that you made chairs work magic.

Direct: He said to me “Let me sleep”.
Indirect: He told me to let me sleep.

Direct:  He said to me “I dare not do it.”
Indirect: He told me that he dared not to do it.

Rule-4:
Reported Speech এ Must থাকলে এবং Reporting verb এর Past tense এর হলেও Indirect Speech এ must এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না। আবার চিরকালীন বাধ্যতা থাকলে Must এর পরিবর্তে Had to ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে।
Example:
Direct: Karim said, “I must go there.”
Indirect: Karim said that he had to go there.

Direct: Rima said, “Kamal must have his car repaired.”
Indirect: Rima said that Kamal had to have his car repaired.

Direct: Teacher said, “Students must obey their teachers.”
Indirect: Teacher said that students must obey their teachers.

Direct: Biva said to Eva, “You must suffer a loss if you are not an efficient manager.”
Indirect: Biva said to Eva that she must suffer a loss if she was not an efficient manager.

Rule-5:
Reported Speech যদি কোন চিরন্তন সত্য (Universal Truth) বা অভ্যাসগত (Habitual Fact) প্রকাশ করে তাহলে Reporting verb-এর Tense এ যাই হোক না কেন, Reported Speech এর Verb এর Tense এর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Example:
Direct: Mina said, “Every day I read newspaper.”
Indirect: Mina said that everyday she reads newspaper.

Direct: The teacher said, “The earth moves round the sun.”
Indirect: The teacher said the earth moves round the sun.

Direct: He said, “Every mother loves her child.”
Indirect: He said that every mother loves her child.

Direct: The old man said, “Necessity knows no laws.”
Indirect: The old man said that necessity knows no laws.

Direct: The professor said, “A hungry man wants food.”
Indirect: The professor said that a hungry man wants food.

Rule-6:
Direct speech এর কিছু শব্দ Indirect speech এ নিম্নরূপে পরিবর্তন হয়ে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Direct Speech এ যদি থাকে তাহলে Indirect Speech এ হবে
Now Then
here There
This That
These Those
Ago Before
Hence Thence
Hither Thither
Thus So/In that way
Come Go
Today That day
This day That day
To night That night
Tomorrow The next day/The following day
Yesterday The previous day/The day before
Last night The night before/The previous night
Next day/Week/Year The following day/Week/Year/Month
Yesterday The previous day
Morning/Afternoon/Evening Morning/Afternoon/Evening
Tomorrow morning/Evening The following  morning/Evening

Example:
Direct: He said to me, “I am happy now.”
Indirect: He told me that he was happy then.

Direct: He showed me the place and said “I found the pen here.”
Indirect: He showed me the place and said that he had found the pen there.

Direct: Shuma said to Ruma, “I have found this book here today.”
Indirect: Shuma told Ruma that She had found that book there that day.

Direct: The president said, “Two days ago a member of the club came to me, not yesterday, and he will again come to me tomorrow.”
Indirect: The president said that two days before a member of the club had come to him, not previous day and the member would again go to him the following day.

 

»»»Rules for Changing Sentences:

 Assertive Sentences:
যে বাক্যে কোন কিছু সম্পর্কে একটি সাধারণ বর্ণনা দেওয় হয় তাকে Assertive Sentence বলে। এ ধরণের বাক্য Affirmative and Negative দুই ধরণের হতে পারে।
Assertive Sentence এর Direct Speech কে Indirect Speech এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে নিম্নের নিয়ম মেনে করতে হবে।
Example:
Assertive Sentences এ সব Narration Change আলোচনা করা হবে তার সব নিময় পূর্বে আলোচনা করা হয়েছে। সুতারাং সমস্যা বোধ করলে পূর্বের নিয়মগুলো পুনরায় দেখবে।
Direct: Mother said, “Rice has been cooked.”
Indirect: Mother said that rice had been cooked.

Direct: I say, “He gave me his book.”
Indirect: I say that he gave me his book.

Direct: Ram says to Sham, “Halim will go.”
Indirect: Ram says to Sham shat Halim will go.

Direct: ‍Sumon will say, “You are a fool.”
Indirect: Sumon will say that I am a fool.

Direct: Alam said to Karim, “I go home.”
Indirect: Alam told Karim that he(Alam) went home.

Direct: Rubi said to Bithi, “I am going home.”
Indirect: Rubi told Bithi that she was going home.

Direct: I said to Tareq, “I have eaten rice.”
Indirect: I told Tareq that I had eaten rice.

Direct: They said to me, “We have been working for an hour.”
Indirect: They told me that They had been working for an hour.

Direct: Mother said to me, “I saw him.”
Indirect: Mother told me that she had seen him.

Direct: Bill said to Mill, “I was working.”
Indirect: Bill told Mill that he had been working.

Direct: Ratna said to Panna, “I had seen him.”
Indirect: Ratna told Panna that she had seen him.

Direct: Ratna said to Hira, “I had been reading the book for an hour before I saw him.
Indirect: Ratna told Hira that she had been reading the for an hour she had seen him.

Direct: Bithi said to Jesmin, “I shall do it.”
Indirect: Bithi told Jesmin that she should do it.

Direct: Roni said to Bithi, “Biva will be cooking rice.”
Indirect: Roni told Bithi that Biva would be cooking rice.

Direct: Sharif said to Habib, “I shall have done the work by 5 PM.”
Indirect: Sharif told Habib that he would have don the work by 5 PM.
কখনও কখনও Direct Speech এ Reporting Verb সহ উপস্থাপক অংশ অনুল্লেখিত থাকে। এসব ক্ষেত্রে নিচের নিয়মে Direct Speech কে Indirect এ রূপান্তর করতে হয়।

Direct: Rahim is a good boy.
Indirect: The speaker says that Rahim is a good boy.

Direct: I will go there.
Indirect: The speaker says that he will go there.

Direct: We have won the game.
Indirect: The players said that they had won the game.

»»»Interrogative Sentences
প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্যকে Interrogative Sentence বলে।
Interrogative Sentence এর Direct Speech কে Indirect Speech এ পরিবর্তন করতে হলে নিম্নের নিয়ম মেনে করতে হবে। নিচে এই নিয়মগুলো আমরা শিখবো।

Rule-1:
Reported Speech যদি Interrogative Sentence হয় এবং Reporting Verb এ যদি Said বা Said to থাকে তাহলে Indirect Speech এ ‍ask, demand, enquire, wonder, বা want to know তে পরিবর্তিত হয়।
Example:
Direct: He said to me, “What is your name?”
Indirect: He asked me what his name was.

Rule-2:
Reported Speech যদি What, When, Which, How, Why, Who, Whom, Whoever, Whosever, Why ever, Wherever ইত্যাদি দ্বারা শুরু হয় তাহলে  Indirect Speech এ সেগুলো অপরিবর্তিত থাকে।
Example:
Direct: He said me, “When will you come?”
Indirect: He asked me when I would go.

Rule-3:
Reported Speech যদি What, When, Which, How, Why, Who, Whom, Whoever, Whosever, Why ever, Wherever ইত্যাদি দ্বারা শুরু না হয়ে কোন Auxiliary verb দ্বার শুরু হয় তাহলে  Indirect Speech এ If বা Whether ব্যবহৃত হবে।
Example:
Direct:  She said to me, “Will you go there?”
Indirect: She told me if I would go there.

Rule-4:
Indirect Speech এ রূপান্তরিত বাক্য আর Interrogative থাকে না; তাই Indirect Speech এর শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক(?) বসে না। এজন্যে Indirect এর Axiliary verb টি Subject এর পরে বসে।
Example:
Direct: I said to him, “What is your name?”
Indirect: I asked him what his name was.

Direct: Mitul said, “When did Jack go?”
Indirect: Mitul asked when Jack had gone.

Direct: Rina said to Runa, “Why have you done it?”
Indirect: Rina asked Runa why she(Runa) had done it.

Direct: The teacher said, “What will happen now.?
Indirect: The teacher asked what would happen then.

Direct: Father said to me, “Which pen do you want?”
Indirect: Father asked me which pen I wanted.

Direct: Sumon said to Biva, “Will you do it.?
Indirect: Sumon asked Biva whether she would do it.

Direct: Bithi said to Rithi, “Have you eaten rice?”
Indirect: Bithi asked Rithi whether she had eaten rice.

Direct: Tuhin says to Ruhin, “Do you study?”
Indirect: Tuhin asks Ruhin if he studies.

Direct: Babu will say to Rabu, “Are you reading now?”
Indirect: Babu will ask Rabu if she was reading then.

Direct: The man said to me, “Do you know my name?”
Indirect: The man asked me whether/if I knew his name.

Direct: We said to them, “Can you do it?”
Indirect: We asked them if they could do it.

Rule-5:
Shall/Will+I/We দিয়ে Reported Speech এর বাক্য শুরু হলে এবং তা মূলত কোন প্রশ্ন না বুঝিয়ে কোন ভবিষ্যত অনুমান বুঝালে Indirect Speech এর ask ইত্যাদির স্থলে Wonder (অনুমান করা, অবাক হওয়া) ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং প্রশ্নবোধক বাক্যের জন্য প্রযোজ্য অন্যান্য নিয়ম প্রযোজ্য হয়।
Example:

Direct: The boy said, “What shall I be in 1997?”
Indirect: The boy wondered what he would be in 1997.

Direct: She said, “Where shall we be after 1000 years?
Indirect: She wondered where they should be after 1000 years?

Direct: The man said, “Shall I live if there breaks out a great war in the country?”
Indirect: The man wondered if he would live if there broke out a great war in the country.

 

»»»Imperative Sentences
Imperative Sentence হলো সেই ধরণের বাক্য যা আদেশ, অনুরোধ, নিষেধ ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করে।
এই জাতীয় বাক্য-

  • Verb দিয়ে শুরু হয় (আদেশ, অনুরোধের ক্ষেত্রে)।
  • Auxiliary verb দ্বার শুরু হয় (নিষেধের ক্ষেত্রে)।

Rule-1:
Reporting Verb এ যদি Say to বা Say থাকে তাহলে  Indirect Speech এ তা Tell, Order, Command, Advise, Request, Beg, entreat পরিবর্তিত হয় এবং Reported Speech এর মূল Verb এর আগে to/not to বসে।
Example:
Direct: He said to the boy, “Do it.”
Indirect: He ordered the boy to do it.

Rule-2:
Reported Speech এ যদি কোন নিষেধ প্রকাশিত হয় তাহলে ‍Say to বা Say এর পরিবর্তে Order না বসিয়ে Prohibit বসানো যায়। তখনা Indirect Speech এ Not বসে না।
Example:
Direct: He said to the boy, “Do it.”
Indirect: He ordered the boy to do it.

Direct: He said to the boy, “Do not go away.”
Indirect: He ordered the boy not to go away.
Or He prohibited the boy to go away.

Rule-3:
Reported Speech যদি Let us দিয়ে শুরু হয় তাহলে তা কোন প্রস্তাব বুঝায়। এমন ক্ষেত্রে Indirect Speech এ Say বা ‍Say to এর পরিবর্তে Propose/Suggest that or Propose/Suggest to বসে Reported Speech এর ‍Subject এর পূর্বে That বসে।
Example:
Direct: Rahim said to Karim, “Let us go home.”
Indirect: Rahim proposed to Karim that We should go home.

Direct: Rubel said, “Let us study now.”
Indirect: Rubel proposed that we should study then.
Or Rubel suggested that we should study then.

Direct: Mushfiq said to Rafiq, “Let us run a race.”
Indirect: Mushfiq proposed/suggested that we should run a race.

Rule-4:
Reported Speech যদি Let us দিয়ে শুরু না হয়ে Let him/her/me/Karim ইত্যাদি দিয়ে শুরু হয় তখন Indirect Speech এ Say এর পরিবর্তে Say/Wish এবং Say to এর পরিবর্তে Tell/Request ব্যবহৃত হয়। Reported Speech এর Verb এর আগে may/might/might be allowed to ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Example:
Direct: The old man said “Let me have something to eat.”
Indirect: The old man wished (or requested) that he might (or, might be allowed to) have some thing to eat.

Direct: The boy said to me, “Let me go now.”
Indirect: The boy told me that he might/might be allowed to go then.

Direct: He said, “Let the old man have some food.”
Indirect: He wished that the old man might (Or might be allowed) have some food.

Rule-5:
Reported Speech এর প্রথমে যদি কোন Vocative বা সম্বোধন পদ থাকে তাহলে তা Indirect Narration এ বাদ দেওয়া যায় কিংবা Addressing + NP + as +NP অথবা Addressing + NP এভাবে পরিবর্তন করা যায়। এক্ষেত্রে Reported Speech এর বাকি অংশ যদি Imperative Sentence হয় তাহলে এতক্ষণ যেসব নিয়ম আলোচিত হয়েছে তার সবগুলি প্রযোজ্য হবে।
Example:
Direct: He said, “My friends, listen to me.”
Indirect: He told his friends to listen to him
Or Addressing his friends, he told them listen to him.

Direct: Biva said to the lady, “Sister, help me please.”
Indirect: Addressing the lady sister Biva requested her to help her.

Direct: He said, “Rahim, do not do it.”
Indirect: Addressing Rahim, he told him not to do it.
Or Addressing Rahim, he prohibited  him not to do it.
Or Addressing Rahim, he ordered  him not to do it.
Or He prohibited Rahim to do it.
Or He ordered Rahim not to do it.

Direct: The commander said to his soldiers, “March on!.”
Indirect: The commander commanded his soldiers to march on.

Direct: The doctor said to him, “Take this medicine twice a day.”
Indirect: The doctor advised him to take this medicine twice a day.

Direct: The mother said to the son, “Do not laugh at the poor.”
Indirect: The mother advised the son not to laugh at the poor.

Direct: I said to him, “Please, help me.”
Indirect: I requested him to help me.

Direct: Sumon said to me, “Let us go out for a walk.”
Indirect: Sumon proposed to me that we should go out for a walk.

Direct: He said to Ram, “Let us do it.”
Indirect: He proposed to Ram that they should do it.

Direct: The old man said, “Let me eat some food.”
Indirect: The old man begged that He might/might be allowed to eat some food.

Direct: My friend said to me, “Let her have something to eat.”
Indirect: My friend wished that she might (or, might be allowed to) have something to eat.

»»»Exclamatory Sentences
Exclamatory Sentences এর মাধ্যমে আকষ্মিক আবেগ প্রকাশিত হয়।
Rule-1:
Direct Speech এর Said এর পরিবর্তে Indirect Speech-এ নিম্নরূপ ইংরেজি শব্দগুচ্ছ বসবে।
সুখ বুঝাতে ⇒ Exclaim with joy
দূ:খ বুঝাতে ⇒ Exclaim with sorrow/Exclaim with sorrowfully/Exclaim with grief
শুভেচ্ছা বা সুপ্রভাত বুঝাতে ⇒ Wish
বিদায় বুঝাতে ⇒ Bid (past-bade)
কামনা বুঝাতে ⇒ Strongly wish/desire
বিষ্ময় বুঝাতে ⇒ exclaim with surprise
Example:
Direct: He said, “Alas! I am undone.”
Indirect: He exclaimed with grief that he was undone.

Direct: He said to his friends, “Good bye.”
Indirect: He bade his friends good bye.

Direct: They said, “Hurrah! We have won the game.”
Indirect: They exclaimed with joy that they had won the game.

Direct: The old man said, “Were I a king.”
Indirect: The old man strongly wished that he were a king.

Rule-2:
Exclaim with grief/sorrow/joy, Strongly wish/desire-এর পরে That বসে। কিন্তু Wish, Bid, Bade এর পরে That না বসে সরাসরি Object বসে।
Example:
Direct: He said, “How beautiful the bird is!”
Indirect: He exclaimed with surprise that the bird was very beautiful.

Direct: He said to me, “Good morning.”
Indirect: He wished me good morning.

Direct: He said to me, “Good bye.”
Indirect: He bade me good bye.

Rule-2:
Reported Speech যদি How বা What দিয়ে শুরু হয় এবং বাক্যে একটি Adjective বা Noun থাকে তাহলে Indirect Speech এ ঐ Adjective এর আগে Very/Completely এবং Noun এর আগে Great বসে।
 Example:
Direct: He said, “How fine the book is!”
Indirect: He explained with surprise that the book was very fine.

Direct: He said, “What a fool Rahim is!”
Indirect: He exclaimed with sorrow that Rahim was a great fool.

Rule-3:
Tense পরিবর্তনের নিয়ম আগের মতই।
Example:
Direct: She said, “How nice the pen is!”
Indirect: She exclaimed with joy that the pen was very nice.

Direct: Biva said, “Alas! I am helpless.”
Indirect: Biva exclaimed with grief that she was helpless.

Direct: He said, “Farewell, my friends.”
Indirect: He bade his friends farewell.
Or He bade farewell to his friends.
Or Addressing his friends, he bade them farewell.

Direct: The farmer said, “Had I much money!”
Indirect: The farmer strongly desired that he had much money.

Direct: He said, “O, what a bad time!”
Indirect: He cried out in sorrow (Or exclaimed with sorrow/grief) that it was a very bad time.
Or he cried out in sorrow that the time was very bad.

Direct: The man said, “By God! I will never do it.”
Indirect: The man swore by God that he would never do it.

»»»Optative Sentences
Optative sentence এর মাধ্যমে কামনা, আশির্বাদ ইত্যাদি প্রকাশিত হয়। Optative sentence কে Narration করার সময়-
 Rule-1:
Reported Speech-এ God শব্দটি উল্লেখ থাকলে Say বা ‍Say to বদলে Indirect Speech-এ Pray ব্যবহৃত হয়। সুতারং এভাবে বলা যায় যে, Reporting verb এর ‍Subject এর পর pray(ed) that God might লিখে তারপর Reported Speech এর Verb বা Object বসাতে হয়।
Example:
Indirect: He said to me “May God bless you.”
Direct: He prayed that God might bless me.

Rule-2:
Reported Speech-এ God শব্দটি উল্লেখ না থাকলে এবং কামনা বুঝালে তখন Say বা ‍Say to বদলে Indirect Speech-এ Wish ব্যবহৃত হয়। Wish that + NP + might + V বা Wish + NP ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Example:
Indirect: They said, “Long live our president.”
Direct: They wished that their president might live long.
Or They wished their president a long life.

Indirect:  The mother said to her son, “May you pass the exam.”
Direct: The mother wished her son might pass the exam.

Indirect: The teachers said, “May our students be happy in future.”
Direct: The teachers wished that their students might be happy in future.

Indirect: The boy said, “May my mother come round.”
Direct: The boy wished that his mother might come round.

Indirect: The beggar said to the boy, “May you pass your examination.”
Direct: The beggar wished that his motherland might live long.

Indirect: The old man said to me, “May Allah help you every step of your life.”
Direct: The old man wished that Allah might help me in every step of my life.

Indirect: The man said, “ Long live my motherland.”
Direct: The man wished that his motherland might live long.

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