Transformation

transformation of sentences

Transformation of Sentences:

Table of contents:
»»From Affirmative to Negative
»»From Assertive to Exclamatory
»»From Assertive to Interrogative
»»From Simple to Complex
»»From Simple to Compound
»»From Complex to Compound

»»From Affirmative to Negative:
Transformation of sentences -এ কিছু কিছু বাক্য আছে যা চিরন্তন সত্য, অভ্যাস, স্বরূপ, ঐতিহাসিক বর্তমান ইত্যাদি প্রকাশ করে বলে এইসব বাক্য অন্যরূপে পরিবর্তন করতে বা Transformation of sentences করার সময় এদের অর্থের কথা বিবেচনা করতে হয়।
Affirmative: Man is mortal.
Negative: Man is not immortal.
Affirmative: He is wise.
Negative: He is not unwise.
Affirmative: The man is rich.
Negative: The man is not poor.
Affirmative: He is a good man.
Negative: He is not a bad man.
Affirmative: The shirt is dirty.
Negative: The shirt is not clean.
Affirmative: He is reasonable.
Negative: He is not unreasonable.
Affirmative: He is pleased.
Negative: He is not displeased.
Affirmative: He is kind.
Negative: He is not rude.
Affirmative: She was present.
Negative: She was not absent.
Affirmative: He was well today.
Negative: He was not unwell today.
Affirmative: Rice is costly.
Negative: Rice is not cheap.
Affirmative: Rakib obeys me.
Negative: Rakib does not disobey me.

Rule-01:
Only বা alone এর পরিবর্তে উত্তর বাক্যের শুরুতে None but বসে। আর কোন পরিবর্তন হয় না।
Affirmative: Only he can play good cricket.
Negative: None but he can play good cricket.
Affirmative: Only the science students can apply for the post.
Negative: None but the science students can apply for the post.
Affirmative: Only they can do the work.
Negative: None but they can do the work.
Note: বস্তুর ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে nothing but বসে। তবে বয়সের ক্ষেত্রে বা সংখ্যার ক্ষেত্রে only এর পরিবর্তে not more than বসে।
Affirmative: He is only four.
Negative: He is not more than four.
Affirmative: They have only two cars.
Negative: They have not more than two cars.

Rule-02:
Affirmative বাক্য all দিয়ে শুরু হলে Negative করার সময় no দিয়ে শুরু করতে হয় এবং Affirmative বাক্যের adjective বা verb কে পরিবর্তিত করে বিপরীতার্থক করতে হয়:
Affirmative: All men here are poor.
Negative: No men here are rich.
Affirmative: All must submit to destiny.
Negative: No one can escape his/her destiny.
Affirmative: All but he have passed.
Negative: No one but he has failed.
Affirmative: All men are mortal.
Negative: No man is immortal.
Affirmative: All must die.
Negative: No one can scape death.
Note: উপরের বাক্যগুলোতে Affirmative এর must, Negative এ can হিসেবে রূপান্তরিত হয়েছে।

Rule-03:
Subject যদি all না হয় তাহলে affirmative এর must Negative এ can not but এ রূপান্তরিত হবে:
Affirmative: We must do it.
Negative: We can not but do it.
Affirmative: We must die
Negative: We can not but die.
Affirmative: We must buy a grammar book.
Negative: He can not but buy a grammar book.
Affirmative: You must listen to your teacher.
Negative: You can not but listen to your teacher.
Affirmative: A student must be disciplined.
Negative: A student can not but be disciplined.
Affirmative: We must love one another.
Negative: We can not but love one another.

Rule-04:
Every কে Negative করতে হলে Every এর পরিবর্তে There is no বসে + every এর পরের শব্দটি বসে + but + প্রদত্ত sentence এর বাকী অংশ।
Affirmative: A mother loves her child.
Negative: There is no mother but loves her child.
Affirmative: Every body likes flowers.
Negative: There is no body but likes flowers.
Affirmative: Everybody has some needs.
Negative: There is nobody but has some needs.
Affirmative: Every man must fall prey to death.
Negative: There is no man but must fall prey to death.
Affirmative: Every one will admit that he did the best.
Negative: No one will deny that he did the best.
Affirmative: Every one must submit to his/her fate.
Negative: There is no one but will submit his/her fate.
Affirmative: Every one loves him.
Negative: There is no one but loves him.
Affirmative: Everybody is liable to error.
Negative: There is nobody but is liable to error.
Affirmative: Everybody is needy.
Negative: There is nobody but is needy.
Affirmative: Everybody is dependent.
Negative: There is nobody but is dependent.
Affirmative: Everyone hates a terrorist.
Negative: There is no one but hates a terrorist.
Affirmative: Everybody fears a lion.
Negative: There is no body but hates a liar.

Rule-05:
Affirmative এ Sometimes থাকলে Negative এ Not Always বসবে:
Affirmative: He sometimes smokes.
Negative: He does not always smoke.
Affirmative: We sometimes go there.
Negative: We do not always go there.
Affirmative: A scholar is also sometimes wrong.
Negative: A scholar is not always also wrong.
Affirmative: The rich are sometimes happy.
Negative: The rich are not always happy.

Rule-06:
Affirmative এ many থাকলে negative এ not a few এবং affirmative এ a few থাকলে negative এ not many বসে।
এরূপ Affirmative এ a little বা much থাকলে negative এ যথাক্রমে not much এবং not a little বসবে।
Affirmative: There are many people here.
Negative: There are not a few people here.
Affirmative: I have a few books
Negative: I do not have many books.
Affirmative: He ate many mangoes.
Negative: He did not eat a few mangoes.
Affirmative: I want much milk.
Negative: I do not want much milk.
Affirmative: He has drunk much milk.
Negative: He has not drunk a little milk.
Affirmative: We sold a little honey.
Negative: We did not sell much honey.

Rule-07:
Affirmative-এ for the last time থাকলে Negative-এ Never ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Affirmative: I come here for the last time.
Negative: I shall never come here.
Affirmative: I saw him for the last time.
Negative: I did never seen him since then.
Affirmative: I warn you for the last time.
Negative: I shall never warn you again.

Rule-08:
Affirmative-এ for ever বা for good থাকলে Negative এ never ব্যবহৃত হয় এবং adverb কে এমনভাবে পরিবর্তন করতে হয় যেন বিপরীতার্থক অর্থ প্রদান করে।
Affirmative: He has left the village for ever.
Negative: He will never come to the village again.
Affirmative: I have given up smoking for ever.
Negative: I shall never smoke again.
Affirmative: They have sold the house for good.
Negative: They will never buy the house.
Affirmative: He came here for the last time.
Negative: He never came here again.

Rule-09:
As soon as যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে-
As soon as এর জায়গায় no sooner had বসবে + প্রদত্ত Sentence এর কর্তা বসে + সে Sentence এর মূল verb এর past participle form বসে + সে sentence বাকী অংশ বসে + than + দ্বিতীয় বাক্য বসে।
Affirmative: As soon as I arrived home, it began to rain.
Negative: No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.
Affirmative: As soon as she heard the news, she started weeping.
Negative: No sooner had she heard the new than she started weeping.
Affirmative: As soon as I wanted to catch the bird, it flew away.
Negative: No sooner had I wanted to catch the bird than it flew away.
Affirmative: As soon as he he saw the tiger, he ran away.
Negative: No sooner had he seen the Tiger than he ran away.
Affirmative: No sooner had the boy saw the police, he ran away.
Negative: As soon as the boy seen the police than he ran away.

Rule-10:
Always যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে Always এর পরিবর্তে never বসে। Affirmative শব্দটির Negative রূপ বসাতে হয়।
Affirmative: You should always speak the truth.
Negative: You should never tell a lie.
Affirmative: He is always reasonable.
Negative: He is never unreasonable.
Affirmative: I will always remember you.
Negative: I will never forget you.
Affirmative: He is always present.
Negative: He is never absent.
Affirmative: He was always punctual.
Negative: He was never late.
Affirmative: I always tell truth.
Negative: I never tell lie.

Rule-11:
কখনো কখনো affirmative এর adverb কে পরিবর্তন করে Negative করতে হয়।
Affirmative: He acted wisely.
Negative: He did not act foolishly.
Affirmative: He believed it strongly.
Negative: He did not believe it weekly.
Affirmative: He behaved politely with us.
Negative: He did not behave rudely with us.

Rule-12:
দুইটি Subject বা Verb বা Object বা Complement যদি Affirmative এ and দ্বারা যুক্ত থাকে তাহলে ঐ বাক্যকে Negative করতে হয় তাহলে দুইটি Subject বা Verb বা Object বা Complement এর আগে যথাক্রমে Not only——–But also যুক্ত করতে হয়।
Affirmative: Kabir and Mita went there.
Negative: Not only Kabir but also Mita went there.
Affirmative: Karim ate bread and egg.
Negative: Karim ate not only bread but also egg.
Affirmative: He is a farmer and business man.
Negative: He is not only a farmer but also a business man.
Affirmative: I bought drank some milk.
Negative: I not only bought but also drank some milk.

Rule-13:
Superlative degree যুক্ত Affirmative sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + superlative এর পরের অংশ + verb + as + superlative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is the best batsman in the team.
Negative: No other batsman in the team is as good as him.
Affirmative: You are the best boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as you.

Rule-14:
Than any other/than all other যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
No other + any other/all other এর পরের অংশ বসে + প্রদত্ত verb + so/as বসে + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is better than any other boy in the class.
Negative: No other boy in the class is as good as him.
Affirmative: Dhaka is bigger than all other cities in Bangladesh.
Negative: No other city in Bangladesh is as big as Dhaka.

Rule-15:
Than যুক্ত comparative degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
Than এর শেষের অংশ প্রথমে বসে + verb (tense ও person অনুযায়ী) + not + so/as + comparative degree এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence এর subject.
Affirmative: He is stronger than you.
Negative: You are not as/so strong as him.
Affirmative: I am taller than you.
Negative: You are not as tall as me.

Rule-16:
As….as যুক্ত positive degree কে Negative করতে হলে –
প্রথম as এর পরিবর্তে not less শেষ as এর পরিবর্তে than বসে।
Affirmative: Robi and Rahat were as strong as Rakib.
Negative: Robi and Rahat were not less strong than Rakib.
Affirmative: He is as good as you.
Negative: He is not less good than you.

Rule-16:
Less…than যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Less এর জায়গায় not as বসবে এবং than এর জায়গায় as বসবে।
Affirmative: He is less ugly than you said.
Negative: He is not as ugly as you said.
Affirmative: You are less good than he said.
Negative: You are not as good as he said.

Rule-17:
Too…..to যুক্ত sentence কে Negative করতে হলে –
Too এর জায়গায় so বসে + Too এর পরের adjective/adverb বসে + that বসে + পনুরায় subject বসে। + tense অনুযায়ী can not/could not + প্রদত্ত to এর পরের অংশ বসে।
Affirmative: He is too weak to walk.
Negative: He is so weak that he can not walk.
Affirmative: The sum was too difficult for me to work out.
Negative: The sum was so difficult for me that I could not work out.

 

»»From Assertive to Exclamatory:
এটি চমৎকার একটি Sentence conversion. Transformation of sentences-এ এটা খুব গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। কারণ আমরা হরহামেশাই এই ধরণের বাক্যের Pattern ব্যবহার করে থাকি। চলুন জেনে নেই, কিভাবে বিভিন্ন নিয়ম ব্যবহার করে Assertive to exclamatory করা যায়।
Rule-18:
প্রথমে what বা how বসে + adjective বসে + subject + verb + বাকী অংশ( যদি থাকে) + !
Note – adjective এর পূর্বে a থাকলে what a বসে এবং a না থাকলে how বসে.
Assertive: She is very beautiful.
Exclamatory: How beautiful she is!
Assertive: You are a great fool.
Exclamatory: What a fool you are!
Assertive: The bird is very nice.
Exclamatory: How nice the bird is!
Assertive: The man is very tall.
Exclamatory: How tall the man is!
Assertive: The room is very large.
Exclamatory: How large the room is!
Assertive: The cat runs very swiftly.
Exclamatory: How swiftly the cat  runs!
Assertive: It is a very beautiful place.
Exclamatory: What a beautiful place it is!
Assertive: The man is very honest.
Exclamatory: How honest the man is!

Rule-19:
Assertive sentence এ wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় শুরুতে if/had বসে।
Assertive: I wish I had the wings of a bird.
Exclamatory: Had I the wings of bird!
Or, If I had the wings of a bird!
Assertive: I wish I were a king.
Exclamatory:  If I were a king!
Assertive: I wish I had so much money.
Exclamatory: Had I so much money!
Assertive: I wish I had a grand house.
Exclamatory: Had I a grand house!

Rule-20:
Assertive sentence এ wish/desire Exclamatory sentence করার সময় এর শুরুতে If, had, o that, oh that, ইত্যাদি বসে।
Assertive: I wish I could do it.
Exclamatory: Could I do it!
Assertive: I wish I were a player.
Exclamatory:  If I were a player!
Assertive:  I desire I were young again.
Exclamatory:  Oh that I were young again

»»From Assertive to Interrogative:
Assertive বাক্য ও Interrogative বাক্য ইতোমধ্যেই আমার শিখে নিয়েছি। এখন আমরা শিখব, কিভাবে খুব সহজে কিছু নিয়ম-নীতি প্রয়োগ করে Assertive থেকে Interrogative করা যায়।

Rule-21:
অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে সাহায্যকারী verb যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় sentence টি যদি affirmative হয় তাহলে – Auxiliary verb + n’t + subject + বাকী + ?
Note- assertive এ will, can, shall, am থাকলে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় won’t, can’t, shan’t, ain’t হয়.
Assertive: He is in the school.
Interrogative: Isn’t he in the school?
Assertive: You can do the work.
Interrogative: Can’t you do the work?

Rule-22:
Auxiliary verb যুক্ত negative অর্থবোধক Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় negative উঠে যায়। এবং সাহায্যকারী verb প্রথমে বসে। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive:  He is not in the school.
Interrogative: Is he in the school?
Assertive:  I shall not go to Dhaka tomorrow.
Interrogative: Shall I go to Dhaka tomorrow?

Rule-23:
Auxiliary verb বিহীন Assertive sentence interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + subject + verb এর base form + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive:  He played good football.
Interrogative: Didn’t he play good football?
Assertive: She likes ice-cream.
Interrogative:  Doesn’t she like ice-cream?

Rule-24:
Assertive sentence এ never থাকলে ever হয় এবং nothing থাকলে anything হয়। auxiliary verb না থাকলে Subject and tense অনুযায়ী প্রথমে আনতে হয়। শেষে প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।
Assertive: There is nothing on the table.
Interrogative: Is there anything on the table?
Assertive: I know nothing about it.
Interrogative: Do I know anything about it?
Assertive:  You never play football.
Interrogative: Do you ever play football?
Assertive: I have nothing to do?
Interrogative: Have I anything to do?
Assertive: He said nothing?
Interrogative:  Did he say anything?
Note– Assertive sentence এর subject এ যদি nothing থাকে তাহলে nothing এর জায়গায় what বসে।
Assertive:  Nothing can ruin him.
Interrogative:  What can ruin him?

Rule-25:
Assertive-এ nothing but থাকলে interrogative-এ শুধু but বা anything but ব্যবহৃত হয়।
Assertive: Our life is nothing but a walking shadow.
Interrogative: What is life but a walking shadow?
Assertive: It was nothing but a deceit.
Interrogative: What was it but a deceit?
Assertive: He wants nothing but a good job.
Interrogative: What does he want but a good job?

Rule-26:
Everybody/ everyone/all যুক্ত Assertive sentence কে interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় Everybody/ everyone/all এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + Subject and tense অনুযায়ী don’t/ didn’t/ doesn’t বসে + verb এর base form + verb এর পরের অংশ +?
Assertive: Everybody wants to be win.
Interrogative: Who doesn’t wish to be win?
Assertive: Everybody/All loves flowers.
Interrogative: Who doesn’t love flower?

Rule-27:
Nobody/none/no one interrogative এ রুপান্তর করার সময় –
Nobody/none/no one এর পরিবর্তে who বসে + বাকী অংশ + ?
Assertive:  Nobody trusts a liar.
Interrogative: Who trusts a liar?
Assertive: None can help us.
Interrogative: Who can help us?
Assertive: No one has everything?
Interrogative: Who has everything?
Assertive: None can live alone.
Interrogative: Who can live alone?
Assertive: He will never come here.
Interrogative: Will he ever come here?
Assertive: An honest man never tell a lie.
Interrogative: Does an honest man never tell a lie?
Assertive: You have never seen it before.
Interrogative: Have you ever seen it before?
Assertive: I have never been to Comilla.
Negative: Have I ever been to Comilla?
Assertive: Nobody could ever count my love for you.
Interrogative: Who could ever count my love for you?
Assertive: No one can beat him.
Interrogative: Who can beat him?

»»Simple to Compound:
একটি simple sentence এ একটিমাত্র independent clause থাকে এবং কোনো dependent clause থাকে না ।
Example: Going there I meet with him.
পক্ষান্তরে একটি compound sentence এ কমপক্ষে দুটি independent clause থাকে যারা পৃথক sentence হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে এবং coordinating conjunction দিয়ে যুক্ত থাকে ।
Such as: Listening to music and singing songs are my hobbies.
Simple sentence কে compound sentence এ রূপান্তরিত করার নিয়ম নীচে বর্ণিত হলো ।

Rule-28:
যদি simple sentence এ বোঝানো হয় যে কেউ দুটো কাজ করছে, একটি আগে ও আরেকটি পরে তবে Compound sentence এ প্রথম কাজটিকে দ্বিতীয় কাজের আগে উল্লেখ করে তাদেরকে “and” conjunction দিয়ে যুক্ত করতে হবে। Sentence এ দ্বিতীয় কাজের tense ব্যবহার করা হবে।
Example:
Simple: Going to market he bought a pen.
Compound: He went to market and bought a pen.
Simple: Hearing the news, she started weeping.
Compound: She heard the news and started weeping.
Simple: Coming home she had lunch.
Compound: She came home and had lunch.
Simple: Going to the office I will write the article.
Compound: I will go to the office and will write the article.
Simple: Going to the varsity she will do the class.
Compound: She will go to the varsity and will do the class.
Simple: Saying this, he went away.
Compound: He said this and went away.

Rule-29:
Simple sentence এ “besides being” থাকলে compound sentence এ “not only..….but also” structure ব্যবহার করা হবে।
Simple: Besides being beautiful the girl is intelligent.
Compound: The girl is not only beautiful but also intelligent.
Simple: Besides being a brilliant student she is a good singer.
Compound: She is not only a brilliant student but also a good singer.
Simple: Besides being a good writer he is an outstanding lecturer.
Compound: He is not only a good writer but also an outstanding lecturer.

Rule-30:
যদি simple sentence এ “in spite of” থাকে তবে compound sentence এ conjunction “but” দিয়ে ভিন্ন clause দুটো যুক্ত করতে হবে।
Simple: In spite of his riches, he was unhappy.
Compound: He was rich but he was unhappy.
Simple: In spite of their strength, they have been defeated.
Compound: They are strong but they have been defeated.
Simple: In spite of his poverty the postman never shirks his duty.
Compound: The postman is poor, but he never shirks his duty.
Simple: In spite of his illness he sat for the exam.
Compound: He was ill, but he sat for the exam.
Simple: In spite of our hard work we could not succeed.
Compound: We worked hard but we could not succeed.

Rule-31:
যদি simple sentence এ বলা হয় যে একজন person কে কোনকিছু অর্জন করতে must কিছু করতে হবে তবে compound sentence এই structure follow করবে, ”person must do….or/otherwise the person will not…..”
Simple: Do it in order to get money.
Compound: Do it and get money.
Simple: Study hard in order to pass the exam.
Compound: Study hard and pass the exam.
Simple: You must study hard to get good marks in the exam.
Compound: You must study hard or/otherwise, you will not get good marks in the exam.
Simple: He must run fast to win the race.
Compound: He must run fast or/otherwise, he will not win the race.
Simple: You must work hard in order to get succeed.
Compound: Work hard and succeed.

Rule-32:
যদি simple sentence এ বলা হয় যে একজন person কে must কিছু করতে হবে কোনকিছু escape/avoid করতে তবে compound sentence এই structure follow করবে ”person must do….or/otherwise person will + verb’s simple form…..” or , ”person must do……or/otherwise person will be + verb’s past participle form
“person must do….or/otherwise the person will + verb’s simple form…..”
“person must do……or/otherwise the person will be + verb’s past participle form.”
Simple: You must study hard to escape failure in the exam.
Compound: You must study hard or/otherwise you will fail the exam.
Simple: He must run fast to avoid losing in the race.
Compound: He must run fast or/otherwise, he will lose the race.
Simple: The culprit must run away to avoid his arrest.
Compound: The culprit must run away or/otherwise, he will be arrested.

Rule-33:
যদি simple sentence এ একজন person এর কোন কাজ করার কারণ বলা হয়, তবে compound sentence এ প্রথমে কারণ উল্লেখ করে result বা ফলাফলকে conjunction “and” দিয়ে যুক্ত করা হয়।
Simple: Being guilty he ran away.
Compound: He was guilty, and he ran away.
Simple: Being so happy he started to dance.
Compound: He was very happy, and he started to dance.

Rule-34:
যদি simple sentence এ “for” থাকে এবং এর আগে কোন কাজ করার ফলাফল থাকে ও পরে কারণ থাকে তবে compound sentence এ “so”/”therefore” থাকবে এবংএর আগে কারণ ও পরে কাজ করার ফলাফল থাকবে।
Simple: The boss praised him for his hard work.
Compound: He worked hard, so the boss praised him.
Or He worked hard, and therefore, the boss praised him.
উপরের বাক্যে the result is “the praise of the boss, ” and the cause is “his(a person’s) hard work.”
Simple: The singer is very popular among people for her sweet voice.
Compound: The singer’s voice is sweet, so she is very popular among people.
Or The singer’s voice is sweet therefore she is very popular among people.

Rule-35:
যদি simple sentence এ “to” থাকে এবং এর আগে কোন কাজ করার ফলাফল থাকে ও পরে কারণ থাকে তবে compound sentence এ conjunction “and” ব্যবহার হবে ও বাকি সবকিছু একই থাকবে।
Simple: She came here to meet me.
Compound: She came here and met me.
Simple: She studied hard to get good marks.
Compound: She studied hard and got good marks.

Rule-36:
যদি simple sentence এ “In the event of being” থাকে তবে compound sentence এই structure follow করবে, “person must not be+ adjective + or/otherwise + person will not be…….”।
Simple: In the event of being late you will not be allowed to participate in the meeting.
Compound: You must not be late or/ otherwise you will not be allowed to participate in the meeting.
Simple: In the event of being lazy you will not be allowed on the team.
Compound: You must not be lazy or/ otherwise you will not be allowed on the team.

Rule-37:
Simple sentence এ যদি Without+V(ing) দ্বারা গঠিত হয় তাহলে তাকে Compound করতে হলে Or বা Otherwise ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
Simple: Without reading hard, you cannot pass.
Compound: Read hard or you cannot pass.
Simple: Without loving others, you cannot loved by them.
Compound: Love others or you cannot loved by them.

Rule-38:
Simple sentence এ যদি By+V(ing) দ্বারা গঠিত হয় তাহলে তাকে নিম্নোক্তভাবে Compound করতে হবে।
Simple: By eating a balanced diet, we can be healthy.
Compound: We eat a balanced diet and we can be healthy.
Simple: By studying hard you can pass in the first division.
Compound: Study hard and you can pass in the first division.

 

»»From Simple to Complex:
Simple, Complex, এবং Compound sentence – transformation এর নিয়মগুলো বুঝার জন্যে clause এবং phrase সম্পর্কে ধারণা থাকা গুরুত্বপূর্ণ।

Clause এবং phrase এর মধ্যে প্রধান পার্থক্য হচ্ছে – একটি clause এ একটি verb থাকে আর একটি phrase এ কোন verb থাকে না. phrase এ participle, gerund, infinitive, ইত্যাদি থাকলেও কোন verb থাকে না. simple sentence এ সাধারণত একটি clause এবং একটি phrase থাকে।

কিন্তু complex এবং compound  sentence এর ক্ষেত্রে সাধারণত দুইটি clause থাকে অর্থ্যাৎ দুইটি verb  থাকে। সেক্ষেত্রে simple sentence এ শুধুমাত্র একটি verb থাকে।

Complex – If you run first, you will get prize. (Two clauses, two verbs)

Simple – By running first, you will get prize. (One phrase, one clause, and one verb. এখানে study কে present participle বানিয়ে দেয়া হয়েছে যাতে প্রথম clause টা ভেঙ্গে একটা phrase বানানো যায়, কারণ simple sentence এ একটা clause তথা একটাই verb থাকতে পারবে।)

Complex sentences এ কিছু  particular connectors থাকে যা দুইটি clause কে সংযুক্ত করে। সেগুলো হলো:

Before, after, till, until, when, where, which, who, whom, why, what, that, since, as, because, if, unless, as if, as though, although, even though, as soon as, so that, on condition that, and provided that.

Note: Complex to simple এবং simple to complex করার জন্যে complex sentence এর connectors গুলির functions সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত ধারণা থাকা প্রয়োজন।

Simple  sentence কে complex sentence এ পরিবর্তনের জন্যে simple  sentence  এর একটা clause কে ভেঙে অথবা নতুন শব্দ যোগ করে দুইটা clause তৈরি করতে হবে। সেই দুইটি clause কে যোগ করতে হবে উপরোক্ত connectors গুলো ব্যবহার করে। এর জন্যে নির্দিষ্ট নিয়মগুলোর বাইরেও অনেকভাবে simple sentence কে complex sentence এ রূপান্তর করা যায় এবং সবগুলো নিয়মেরই ব্যতিক্রম নিয়ম আছে।

নিম্নোক্ত নিয়মগুলো সব ক্ষেত্রেই ব্যবহার করা যাবে :

Rule-39:
Phrase  টিকে clause  এ রূপান্তর করার জন্যে একটি verb আনতে হবে এবং যদি subject না থাকে তাহলে একটা subject ও আনতে হবে।
Example:
Simple: Seeing the teacher, the student stopped making noise.

এই sentence টিতে phrase হচ্ছে ‘Seeing the teacher’।  এই phrase এ seeing কে সহজেই verb বানানো যায়। আর যেহেতু এই sentence এর subject একটাই সেহেতু আমরা একই subject ব্যবহার করবো।
So, the two clauses we can get from this sentence are:
The students saw the teacher —The students stopped making noise.

Transformation এ tense পরিবর্তিত হয় না।  তাই আমরা seeing কে saw বানিয়েছি। দুটি clause এ subject যেহেতু একই, তাই একটিতে pronoun ব্যবহার করতে হবে। তারপর উপযুক্ত একটি connector বাছাই করতে হবে। এ ধরনের sentence  এর ক্ষেত্রে একের অধিক connector ও থাকতে পারে এবং সব গুলোই সঠিক।
The complex sentence could be:
As the student saw the teacher, they stopped making noise.
Since the student saw the teacher, they stopped making noise.
The students stopped making noises when they saw the teacher.

যদি clause  এবং phrase এর subject ভিন্ন ভিন্ন হয়, তাহলে দুই clause এর জন্যে দুই subject থাকবে।
Example:
Simple: Alex could not go to school due to his mother’s illness.
Complex: Alex could not go to school because his mother was ill.
Or, Alex could not go to school since his mother was ill.

Rule-40:
বাক্যের Object যদি কোন স্থান বা জায়গা বুঝায় তাহলে তার আগে Where বসবে এবং সময় বুঝালে তার আগে When বসবে।
Simple: I know his birth place.
Complex: I know where he was born.
Simple: I know his birthday.
Complex: I know when he was born.
Simple: I know the time of his arrival.
Complex: I know when he will arrive.
Simple: This is my birth place.
Complex: This is a place where I was born.
Simple: This is his work place.
Complex: This is the place where he works.
Simple: I cannot tell the time of his coming.
Complex: I cannot tell when he will come.

Rule-41:
Simple sentence-এর Verb-এর পর যদি এক বা একাধিক Word এর Object থাকে এবং তা কোন স্থানকে না বুঝায় তাহলে ঐ Object কে একটি Clause রূপান্তর করে তার পূর্বে What বসিয়ে বাক্যটিকে Complex করতে হয়।
Simple: I know his name.
Complex: I know what his name is.
Simple: I know his father’s name.
Complex: I know what his father’s name is.
Simple: I saw his pen.
Complex: I saw the pen which was his.
Simple: Tell me the address of the man.
Complex: Tell me what the address of the man is.
Simple: I like the poems of Nazrul.
Complex: I like the poems which are written by Nazrul.
Simple: Tell the truth.
Complex: Tell me what the truth is.
Simple: Show me the picture.
Complex: Show me what the picture is.
Simple: He asked me of my name.
Complex: He asked me what my name is.

 Rule-42:
যদি simple sentence এ অতিরিক্ত কোন Phrase না থাকে তাহলে Simple Sentence এর সাথে নতুন clause যুক্ত করতে হবে। যে শব্দের সাথে  Phrase যুক্ত করতে হবে তা Noun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb হতে পারে।
Example:
Simple: He pleaded for his innocence.
Complex: He pleaded that he was innocence.

এখানে আমরা innocence শব্দটিকে সিলেক্ট করে একটি verb এনে আরেকটি clause তৈরি করেছি। innocence একটি noun, তাই এই clause  টি একটি noun clause. Noun এর সাথে Noun Clause যুক্ত করতে হবে।
Simple: Monir knows Mr. Rashid.
Complex: Monir knows who Mr. Rashid is.
Simple: I prayed for your job.
Complex: I prayed so that you could get the job. (Connector – ‘so that’ requires the modal – ‘can/could’ in the following clause.)
(Note: Complex করার ক্ষেত্রে extra একটি verb আনা যাবে।)
Simple: He admitted his guilt.
Complex: He admitted that he was guilty.

Adjectives শব্দের সাথে Adjective Clause যুক্ত করতে হবে।
Example:
Simple: He was an outstanding actor.
Complex: He was an actor who was outstanding.
এখানে outstanding শব্দটি একটি adjective এবং এই শব্দ কে কেন্দ্র করেই একটা clause তৈরি করা হয়েছে।
More Examples of adjective clauses in complex sentences:
Simple: I lost the most beautiful pen yesterday.
Complex: I lost the pen which was most beautiful.
Simple: He was a remarkable man.
Complex: He was a man who was remarkable.
Simple: I want an extensive encyclopedia.
Complex: I want an encyclopedia which is extensive.

Adverb এর সাথে adverb Clause যুক্ত করতে হবে।
Example:
Simple: He is too weak to carry this heavy bag.
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot carry that heavy bag.
Simple: He is working relentlessly to finish the work.
Complex: He is relentlessly working so that he can finish the work.
Simple: He was born in the year of liberation war.
Complex: He was born when it was the year of liberation war.

Rule-43:
কিছু কিছু phrase কে clause এ রূপান্তর করে complex sentence তৈরি করার জন্যে কিছু নির্দিষ্ট নিয়ম রয়েছে। সেগুলো হল –
Simple sentence যদি Because of থাকে তাহলে Simple করার সময় clause + because/as/since + clause হবে।
Example:
Simple: I could not do it because of my illness.
Complex: I could not do it because I was ill.
Or, I could not do it as I was ill.
Or, I could not do it since I was ill.

Rule-44:
Simple sentence যদি At the time of (indication of time) থাকে তাহলে Complex করার সময়  when + clause + clause / clause + When + clause নিয়ম মানতে হবে.
Example:
Simple: At the time of my birth, my father was abroad.
Complex: When I was born, my father was abroad.

Rule-45:
Simple sentence যদি In spite of/ despite থাকে তাহলে Complex করার সময় though/although + clause + clause. তবে Tough এর পরে S+V+—-যেন থাকে সেদিকে খেয়াল রাখতে হবে।
Example:
Simple: In spite of being a good student, he could not do well on the exam.
Complex: Although he is a good student, he could not do well on the exam.
Simple: Despite being sick, Robin went to school.
Complex: Though Robin was sick, he went to school.

Rule-46:
Simple sentence যদি Without + v1(ing) থাকে তাহলে  if + clause + clause. / clause + unless + clause এর মাধ্যমে বাক্যটিকে Complex করতে হয়।
Example:
Simple: Without playing well, we cannot win this match.
Complex: If we do not play well, we cannot win this match.
Or, We cannot win this match unless we play well.
Simple: Without being there myself, I cannot do it.
Complex: If I am not there myself, I cannot do it.
Or, I cannot do it unless I’m there myself.

Rule-47:
Simple sentence যদি NP + be + too + adjective + to + v থাকে তাহলে নিম্নরূপে পরিবর্তন করতে হয়
Too . . (an adjective) . . too = clause + so …(the adjective)… that + clause.
Example:
Simple: He is too foolish to understand it.
Complex: He is so foolish that he cannot understand it.
Simple: I am too tall to enter the room.
Complex: I am so tall that I can not enter the room.
Simple: This man is too dishonest to speak the truth.
Complex: This man is so dishonest that he cannot speak the truth.
Simple: He is too weak to continue walking.
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot walk.
Simple: They are too strong to lose.
Complex: They are so strong that they cannot lose.
Note: (Connector – ‘so that’ requires the modal – ‘can/could’ in the following clause.)

Rule-48:
Simple sentence যদি NP1+be+too+adj+for+NP2+to+v রূপে থাকে তাহলে তাকে Complex করার সময় NP1+be+so+Adj+that+NP2+cannot+V+Pronoun
Simple: This box is too heavy for me to carry.
Complex: This box is so heavy that I cannot carry it.
Simple: This sum is too hard for me to understand.
Complex: The sum is so hard that I cannot understand it.
Simple: The hill is too high for me to climb.
Complex: The hill is so high that I cannot climb it.
Simple: Dhaka is too small a city for so many people to live in.
Complex: Dhaka is so small a city that so many people cannot live in it.

Rule-49:
Simple sentence এর প্রথমে যদি V + ing +—-থাকে তাহলে Complex করতে হলে ঐ অংশটিকে সাজাতে হয় নিম্নরূপে When + NP + V +—–
Simple: Going to market, he bought a pen.
Complex: When He went to market he bought a pen.
Simple: Completing the work, he felt satisfied.
Complex: When he completed the work he felt satisfied.
Simple: Singing a song, she wanted some money.
Complex: When she sang a song she wanted some money.
Simple: Going to my native village Patul, I always go to fish in the river.
Complex: When I go to my native village Patul I always go to fish in the river.

Rule-50:
Simple sentence এর প্রথমে যদি Having + V(pp)+—থাকে তাহলে তাকে Complex করার সময় When + NP + had + V(pp)+—–হবে।
Simple: Having done this, he went away.
Complex: When he had done this he went away.
Simple: Having heard the news, she cried out in sorrow.
Complex: When she had heard the news she cried out in sorrow.
Simple: Having forgotten his friend’s address, he was sorry.
Complex: When he had forgotten his friend’s he was sorry.
Simple: Having told this, he went away.
Complex: When he had told this he went away.

Rule-51:
Simple sentence এ যদি to + verb থাকে এবং যদি উদ্দেশ্য বুঝায় তাহলে in order that + NP + can/may কিংবা so that + NP + can/may বসাতে হয়।
Simple: We eat to live
Complex: We eat in order that we may live.
Simple: We hired a boat to go there.
Complex: We hired a boat in order that we may go there.

Rule-52:
Simple sentence এ যদি in order to/for the purpose of  থাকে তাহলে তার স্থলে in order that + NP + may or so that + NP + may বসাতে হয়।
Simple: He studied hard in order to pass in the first division.
Complex: He studied hard so that he might pass in the first division.
Simple: We earn money in order to live a happy life.
Complex: We earn money so that we may live a happy life.
Simple: I went there in order to meet him.
Complex: I went there so that I might meet him.
Simple: He practices singing in order to be a good singer.
Complex: He practices singing so that she can be a good singer.
Simple: We studied hard for the purpose of passing in the first division.
Complex: We studied hard so that we could pass in the first division.

Rule-53:
Complex sentence যদি if + NP + v+—-এরূপে গঠিত হয় তাহলে Simple করার সময় By + V(ing) + clause হবে।
Simple: If you study hard, you can pass.
Complex: By studying hard, you can pass.
Simple: If you can earn money, you will live better.
Complex: By earning money, you will live better.
তবে দুটি clause এর ভিন্ন Subject হলে ভিন্নভাবে Simple করতে হবে।
Simple: If you succeed, I shall be happy.
Complex: Your success will make me happy.
Simple: If you arrive here in time, I shall be glad.
Complex: Your arrival here in time will make me glad.
Simple: I am glad to hear of your passing the exam.
Complex: I am glad to hear that you have passed the exam.
Simple: I am not sure of his failure.
Complex: I am not sure that he will fail.
Simple: Rakib, son of Mr. Babul Rahman, is a good boy.
Complex: Rakib, who is the son of Mr. Babul Rahman, is a good boy.

From Complex to Compound:
একটি Complex sentence এ একটি independent clause এবং কমপক্ষে একটি dependent clause থাকে।
Example: I will be waiting  until you come.
পক্ষান্তরে একটি compound sentence এ কমপক্ষে দুটি independent clause থাকে যারা পৃথক sentence হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে এবং  coordinating conjunction দিয়ে  যুক্ত থাকে ।
Such as, Listening to music and singing songs are my hobbies.

Complex sentence কে compound sentence রূপান্তরিত করার নিয়ম নীচে বর্ণিত হলো
Rule-54:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে “though”/”Although” থাকলে, compound sentence “but”/”yet” conjunction দিয়ে পৃথক clause গুলোকে যুক্ত করে ।
Complex: Though he came last, he finished first.
Compound: He came last but finished first.
Complex: Though he is poor, he is happy.
Compound: He is poor but he is happy.
Complex: Although she is ill she worked very hard.
Compound: She is ill yet she worked very hard.
Complex: Though the class was lengthy the class was enjoyable.
Compound: The class was lengthy but it was enjoyable.
Complex: Thought we won the game, we could not win the prize.
Compound: We won the game but we could not win the prize.

Rule-55:
Complex sentence এর মাঝে যদি “lest” থাকে এবং person এর পরে “should” থাকে তবে compound sentence এ conjunction “or”/”otherwise” ব্যবহার করে পৃথক clause গুলোকে যুক্ত করা হয় এবং দ্বিতীয় clause এ future tense হয় ।
Complex: Study hard lest you should fail.
Compound: Study hard, or you will fail.
Complex: Practice hard lest you should be out of the cricket team.
Compound: Practice hard otherwise you will be out of the cricket team.

Rule-56:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে “As soon as/ no sooner had/ hardly had/ scarcely had” থাকলে, compound sentence “and” conjunction  দিয়ে পৃথক clause গুলোকে যুক্ত করে অথবা নিম্নোক্তভাবে করতে হয় ।
Complex: As soon as the rain stopped, we started the journey.
Compound: The rain stopped, and we started the journey.
Complex: As soon as the crowd saw the hero, they started shouting.
Compound: The crowd saw the hero and started shouting.
Complex: As soon as we reached there, the rain started.
Compound: We reached there and the rain started at once.
Complex: Hardly had we reached there when the rain started.
Or  No sooner had we reached there than the rain started.
Or Scarcely had we reached there when the rain started.
Compound: We reached there and the rain started at once.
Complex: Hardly had she heard the news when she started weeping.
Or No sooner had she heard the news than/before she started weeping.
Compound: She heard the news and started weeping at once.

Rule-57:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে “since”/”as”/”when” থাকলে, compound sentence “and”/”so”/”hence”/”therefore” দিয়ে পৃথক clause গুলোকে যুক্ত করে ।
Complex: Since the weather was bad, the match did not take place.
Compound: The weather was bad, and the match did not take place.
Complex: As she was ill, she did not come.
Compound: She was ill, so she did not come.
Complex: As we climbed up the hill, we saw many interesting sights.
Compound: we climbed up the hill and saw many interesting sights.
Complex: As he was ill, he could not attend the meeting.
Compound: he was ill and could not attend the meeting.
Complex: When it is evening, the sun has set to the west.
Compound: The sun has set to the west, and therefore it is evening.

Rule-58:
Complex sentence এ relative pronoun “who” থাকলে, compound sentence সে স্থানে “and” ব্যবহার করে এবং প্রথম clause এর object দ্বিতীয় clause এর subject হয়ে যায় ।
Complex: I saw a girl who was singing.
Compound: I saw a girl  and she was singing.
Complex: I have a friend who is a writer.
Compound: I have a friend and she is a writer.

Rule-59:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে  “if” ও এর পরে first or third person থাকলে  এবং তা যদি negative অর্থ প্রকাশ করে  তবে compound করার সময় এই structure follow করা হয় “Let+ pronoun এর object form + subordinate clause  এর affirmative form + or/otherwise + main clause”
Complex: If I do not go there I will be unable to learn it.
Compound: let me go there or/otherwise I will be unable to learn it.
Complex: if I do not study hard I will be unable to get good marks.
Compound: Let me study hard or/otherwise I will be unable to get good marks.

Rule-60:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে  “if” ও এর পরে first or third person থাকলে  এবং তা যদি affirmative form  এ থাকে  তবে compound করার সময় এই structure follow করা হয়, “Let+ pronoun  এর object form + দুই  clauses এর  মাঝে “and” + main clause” ।
Complex: If I go there, I will be able to learn it.
Compound: let me go there, and I will be able to learn it.
Complex: if I study hard, I will be able to get good marks.
Compound: Let me study hard, and I will be able to get good marks.

Rule-61:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে  “if” ও এর পরে second person থাকলে  এবং তা যদি negative অর্থ প্রকাশ করে  তবে compound করার সময় “If you do not” উঠে গিয়ে verb এর affirmative form + or/otherwise + main clause হয় ।
Complex: If you do not earn money, you will not able to live better.
Compound: Earn money or you will not able to live better.
Complex: If you do not respect others, they will not respect you.
Compound: Respect others or they will not respect you.
Complex: If you do not study hard, you will fail.
Compound: Study hard, or you will fail.
Complex: If you do not practice more, you cannot become a good singer.
Compound: Practice more, or you cannot become a good singer.

Rule-62:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে  “if” ও এর পরে second person থাকলে  এবং তা যদি affirmative form  এ থাকে তবে compound করার সময় “If you do not” উঠে গিয়ে verb এর affirmative form + and + main clause হয় ।
Complex: If you study hard, you will get good marks.
Compound: Study hard, and you will get good marks.
Complex: If you read more, your writing capability will increase.
Compound: Read more, and your writing capability will increase.

Rule-63:
Complex sentence যদি “so…that” form এ থাকে তবে compound sentence এই নিয়ম follow করবে, “so” এর স্থানে “very “; “that” এর স্থানে ”and” +so/hence/therefore + main clause ।
Complex: I am so tired that I cannot work.
Compound: I am very tired, and so/hence/therefore I cannot work.
Complex: The place is so crowded that I cannot find a place to stand.
Compound: The place is very crowded, and so/hence/therefore I cannot find a place to stand.

Rule-64:
Complex sentence এর শুরুতে  “Unless” ও এর পরে second person (you) থাকলে , compound sentence এই structure follow করবে,  “Unless ও you উঠে যাবে + দুই clause এর মাঝে ”or” + main clause ।
Complex: Unless you say prayers, you cannot advise anyone to say prayers.
Compound: Say prayers, or you cannot advise anyone to say prayers.
Complex: Unless you practice hard, you cannot become a good singer.
Compound: Practice hard, or you cannot become a good singer.

Rule-65:
Complex sentence এ যদি একটি That Clause থকে তাহলে তাকে Compound এ রূপান্তরের জন্য পূর্ববর্তী Clause টিকে প্রথমে লিখে and যোগ করে শেষে it/this বসাতে হয়।
Complex: I know that he is honest.
Compound: He is honest and I know it.
Complex: He said that he had gone to Khulna.
Compound: He had gone to Khulna and he said this.
Complex: We saw that the man entered the room.
Compound: The man entered the room and we saw that.

 

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