The voice

voice in english grammar

Voice: Verb প্রকাশের ধরণকেই Voice বা বাচ্য বলে।
Verb-এর রূপ তার কর্তা (Subject) সক্রিয় (Active) না নিষ্ক্রিয় (Passive) তা নির্দেশ করে, তা-ই Voice বা বাচ্য।
Voice দুই প্রকার:
Active Voice: Subject যে কাজ করবে তা প্রকাশ করার জন্য Verb-এর যে Form ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাকে Active Voice বলে।
যেমন: I write a letter. She hates me.

Passive Voice: Verb-এর action বা ক্রিয়া কারো বা কিছুর অর্থাৎ Object-এর উপর কার্যকর দেখাতে Verb-এর উপর কার্যকর দেখাতে Verb-এর যে form ব্যবহৃত হয়, তাকে passive voice বলে।
যেমন: A letter is written by me. I am hated by her.

Active Voice হতে Passive Voice করার নিয়ম:
⇒Active Voice-এর Verb-এর Object, Passive Voice-এর Subject হিসেবে বসে।
⇒অনুরূপভাবে, Active Voice-এর Verb-এর Subject, Passive Voice-এর Verb-এর Object হিসাবে বসে।
⇒Active Voice-এর Verb Passive Voice-এ Past Participle-এ পরিণত হয় এবং তার পূর্বে Active Voice-এর Main Verb-এর Tense বা কাল অনুসারে ‘Be’ Verb বলে।

Tense অনুযায়ী Passive Voice-এর Verb গঠণ:

Tense Voice Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present Active He writes a letter. He is writing a letter. He has written a letter.
Passive A letter is written by him A letter is being written by him. A letter has been written by him.
Past Active He wrote a letter. He was writing a letter. He had written a letter.
Passive A letter was written by him. A letter was being written by him. A letter had been written by him.
Future Active He will write a letter. He will be writing a letter. He will have written a letter.
Passive A letter will be written by him. A letter will be being written by him. A letter will have been written by him.

Change of Pronouns:

Person Subject Object
First I Me
We Us
Second You You
Third He Him
She Her
They Them

Verb ‘to be’ in the passive:

Tense Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present Am/Is/Are Am/Is/Are+Being Have been/Has been
Past Was/Were Was/Were+Being Had been
Future Shall be/Will be Shall be/Will be+Being Shall have been/Will have been

»»Active Voice-এর দুটি Object থাকলে Passive Voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে সাধারণত Indirect Object-টি ‍Subject-রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয়। কিন্তু Direct Object যদি ‍Subject-রূপে ব্যবহৃত হয় তবে Indirect Object-এর পূর্বে to বসে। যেমন:
Active: He gave me some flowers.
Passive: I was given some flowers by him./ Some flowers were given to me by him.

»»Imperative Sentence-কে Active হতে Passive Voice করতে হলে প্রথমে Let দিয়ে ‍Sentence শুরু করতে হয়। Active Voice-এর Object-কে Let-এর Object-রূপে ব্যবহার করতে হয় এবং মূল Verb-এর Past Participle-এর পূর্বে Be বসাতে হয়। উল্লেখ্য যে, যদি এই Sentence Negative হয় তবে Not ‘Let’-এর পরে বসে।
Structure: Let + Object + (Not) be + Main Verb(Past Participle)
যেমন:
Active: Post a letter.
Passive: Let the letter be posted.

Active: Don’t post the letter.
Passive: Let not the letter be posted.

»»Shock, Please, Surprise, Seize, Marvel, Vex, Annoy প্রভৃতি Verb-গুলোর পরে ব্যক্তি বোঝালে With বসে এবং ব্যক্তির আচরণ, গুন বা বস্তু বোঝালে at/by preposition ব্যবহৃত হতে পারে। যেমন-
Active: He pleased me.
Passive: I was pleased with me.

Active: The news shocked me.
Passive: I was shocked at the news.

Active: Her reaction surprised at her reaction.
Passive: I was surprised at her reaction.

Active: His behavior vexes me.
Passive: I am vexed at his behavior.

Active: Curiosity seized him.
Passive: He was seized by curiosity.

ব্যতিক্রম: fill with, worried about, frightened to know

»»Modal Auxiliaries-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active Voice হতে Passive করার সময়ে Modal Verb(Can, Could, May, Might, Shall, Should, Will, Would, Ought to, Must)-এর পরে ‘Be’-এর সঙ্গে Main Verb-এর Past Participle-এর রূপ বসবে।

Structure: Modal verb + Be + Principal verb-এর Past Participle বসবে।

Active: I can help you.
Passive: You can be helped by me.

»»Bare infinitive verb (see, watch, behold, hear, make, dare, need, bid)-এর ক্ষেত্রে Active Voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে To উহ্য থাকে কিন্তু Passive করার সময় To যুক্ত করতে হয়। যেমন:
Active: I made him do the work.
Passive: He was made to do the work.

»»Reflexive Pronoun (Myself, Ourselves, Yourself, Yourselves, Herself, Itself এবং Themselves) কখনো Subject হিসাবে ব্যবহৃত হয় না। সেজন্য Active Voice-এর ‍Subject-টি Subject-রূপেই থেকে যায় এবং Reflexive Pronoun-টি By-এর পরে Agent হিসেবে বসে। যেমন:

Active: He killed himself.
Passive: He was killed by himself.

»»Passive Voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে Agent না থাকলে Active Voice-এ রূপান্তরের ক্ষেত্রে One, Some, Our, They, People ইত্যাদি বাক্যের প্রসঙ্গ অনুযায়ী Subject হিসাবে ব্যবহার করা হয়। যেমন:

Passive: Promises should be kept.
Active: One should keep one’s promises.

Passive: We were defeated.
Active: Someone/our enemy defeated us.

»»‘Know’ Verb-এর পরে Passive Voice-এর ক্ষেত্রে To বসে কিন্তু আত্মপরিচয়ের ক্ষেত্রে ‘Know’-এর পরে By বসে। যেমন:

Active: I know him.
Passive: He is known to me.

ব্যতিক্রম: A tree is known by its fruits.

»»Who, Why, What, When, Which, Where, How-এর ক্ষেত্রে ব্যবহার:

Active: Who writes it?
Passive: By whom is it written?

Active: What did you want?
Passive: What was wanted by you?

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